The LEKO Corpora

The LEKO corpora LEKO_Kolipsi and LEKO_Merlin provide lexical annotations for phraseological elements in Italian L2 writing on the basis of a subset of the texts of the Kolipsi-1 corpus and the Merlin corpus respectively. The annotations were jointly created by the University of Innsbruck (Austria) and Eurac Research Bolzano (Italy) within the project LEKO, whose aim was to describe the use of phrasemes in these texts. There are manual annotations for phraseme category, lexical errors, morpho-syntactic features and error explanations.

  • LEKO_Kolipsi contains about 55 000 tokens in 282 texts from 141 pupils of the final year of upper secondary school, representing two different text types (email and letter, narrative and argumentative genre) as described in the Kolipsi-1 documentation.
  • LEKO_Merlin contains about 9 000 tokens in 50 texts from 50 examinees, who took part in an official language test (TELC) for Italian.

The documents have been transcribed according to the Kolipsi-1 and Merlin Transcription guidelines. Annotation guidelines for the lexical annotations can be found here.

Note: The LEKO corpora do not contain manual annotations for non-lexical errors, foreign word insertions, target language transcriptions, ambiguous writings or other annotations available in the base corpora Kolipsi-1 and Merlin. In order to retrieve any of those annotations and/or full target versions of the student writings please consult the base corpora directly.

Corpus Information

size:~55 000 tokens~9 000 tokens
writers:141 pupils50 adults
text type:opinion text (e-mail), picture story (letter)various (informal and formal email/letter for different purposes, opinion text on different topics), based on standardised language tests
year of data collection:20072012


Annotation guidelines for lexical annotations in the LEKO corpora.

Reference Paper

Konecny, C., Abel, A., Autelli, E., & Zanasi, L. (2016). Identification and Classification of Phrasemes in an L2 Learner Corpus of Italian. In Computerised and Corpus-based Approaches to Phraseology: Monolingual and Multilingual Perspectives = Fraseología computacional y basada en corpus: perspectivas monolingües y multilingües (pp. 533–542). Tradulex. Available online:

Corpus Access

The corpora will be made accessible in 2021.